Characteristics and Precautions of Portable Medical Power Supply System Design

A few years ago, medical professionals were unable to bring life-saving equipment to the scene; Because the technology of portable instruments was not mature at that time. But nowadays, a large number of monitoring instruments, ultrasonic equipment and infusion pumps can be used far away from hospitals - even on the battlefield. Portable devices are becoming more and more convenient to move. It is precisely because of the application of technologies such as lithium-ion batteries that the bulky defibrillator weighing up to 50 pounds can be replaced by lighter and more compact user-friendly devices without causing muscle strain of medical staff.

Patient mobility is also becoming more and more important. Today's patients may be transferred from radiology to intensive care unit, from ambulance to emergency room, or from one hospital to another by ambulance. Similarly, the popularity of portable household instruments and mobile monitoring devices enables patients to stay where they like, rather than necessarily in medical institutions. Portable medical devices must be truly portable in a complete sense and provide the best service for patients.

The demand for smaller and lighter medical devices has increased significantly, which has greatly stimulated people's interest in higher energy density and smaller battery packs. Many breakthroughs have been made in the lithium-ion battery technology used in laptops and mobile phones, which can be innovated and utilized by medical device design engineers.

Compared with other traditional technologies, lithium-ion batteries have many advantages in the application of portable medical devices. This includes higher energy density, lighter weight, longer cycle life, better battery capacity retention characteristics, and a wider temperature range.

Due to its unique chemical properties, the design limitations of lithium ion technology are different from previous battery technologies such as nickel hydride (NIMH), nickel cadmium (NiCd) and sealed lead acid (SLA). At the same time, medical equipment has more stringent operating requirements than consumer electronics in some aspects; Because reliability is very important, a powerful battery pack with accurate power monitoring and reliable battery is required.

1 energy density and voltage

Figure 1. The energy density of lithium ions is much higher than that of nickel compounds.

The main advantage of lithium-ion battery technology lies in the significant improvement of its energy density. At the same volume and weight, lithium-ion batteries can store and release more energy than other rechargeable batteries. Energy density is measured by volume and mass. Lithium ion technology can now provide a volume energy density of nearly 500wh / L and a mass energy density of 200wh / kg (see Figure 1).

Compared with other technologies, lithium ion can release more energy, smaller and lighter. The operating voltage of lithium-ion battery is higher than that of other rechargeable batteries, usually about 3.7V, while that of NiCd or NiMH battery is 1.2V. This means that when multiple other batteries need to be used, only one lithium-ion battery can meet the use requirements. The higher the energy density of the battery used in the design of portable instrument, the smaller the volume of the product and the better the portability. The reduction in the size of the battery pack means that engineers can use the excess space to add more new functions to the same product (see Figure 2).

2 self discharge

Figure 2. Lithium ion batteries have cylindrical and prismatic shapes, which can be made into batteries of different sizes and capacities.

The capacity of the rechargeable battery will be continuously lost. This phenomenon is called self discharge. However, if properly stored, most of the lost capacity can still be restored.

All batteries shall be stored at room temperature (25 ° C or lower) to maintain maximum battery capacity. The end user must store the SLA Battery at low temperature and try to charge close to 100% of its capacity each time to maintain the best performance. The self discharge capacity of sealed lead-acid battery after 6 months at 25 ° C is about 20%; However, after 6 months at 40 ° C, the value increases to about 30%. NiMH batteries should also follow similar recommendations to avoid deactivation of reactants due to long-term storage. The self discharge rate of NiCd and NiMH batteries is about 20% when they are placed at 25 ° C for 1 month, and then the growth rate of self discharge rate slows down significantly.

On the contrary, the best cycle life can be obtained when the charging power of lithium-ion battery is 30-50%. The self discharge capacity of lithium-ion batteries stored at 25 ° C for 6 months is only 10%.

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