Chemical Spills in the Laboratory: How to Clean Up a Spill in the Lab

Once the spill has been cleaned, you will need to dispose of the chemical waste appropriately. The person in charge of the spill should continue wearing personal protective equipment throughout this process. The waste may be confined to an appropriate container with a tight-fitting bag or a sealable plastic bag, depending on the chemical. If the chemical waste is fuming or volatile, before sealing the container or bag it should be placed in a fume cupboard (but not in a recirculating model) so that the fumes can fully evaporate first.

When a person hires a plumber & something goes wrong & takes longer to fix does the plumber charge more or do?

if the job is charged by the hour then you have to accept the possibility that it may run over the estimate. if the job is charged by the work then for something as simple as what you are describing there should be no overcharging or extra cost. but to be honest i do not know what was needed or assumed before the job so do not go by what i say.

If you were in charge of the media, who would be the most beautiful person in the world?

because some whites are born with mentalities like that.. it's just you can not change them.. its in their blood.. i mean even little white kids are racists... and generations after generations.. they keep hating on us.. why? because their racist characteristics are like. .. a skin on human beings.

What kind of laptop do you have and what kind of battery life do you get on a charge?

(1) Dell Insprion 1520 (2) Hour and half on high 3 Hours and a half on medium

is there a loan company out there who accepts poor credit rating and doesn't charge the earth?

Keep trying small local banks and credit unions Do not try online loan sites - they will scam you -very easy to run the scam and people keep falling for it, over and over and over again Personal loans are extremely if not impossible to get. My dad tried and he has good credit and long standing employment. You have to tell them what the money is going to be used for Or you will need collateral

How much does Uber charge passengers for a ride?

Depends on which type of uber you order THEY consist of mainly 2 types: ToUber black (high end cars) ber X (normal lmv's) To be more precise : Uber x charges : Rs.50 base fare Rs.15 per kilometre Uber black charges: Rs100 base fare Rs17 per kilometre Uber is the only company which has an option for sharing your ride with an person looking to go to the same destination , so you will can split the fare !The prices of uber maybe a bit more than competitors but after all it is a leader in car services in many places of the world even tough it does not OWN EVEN ON THE CABS IT SENDS FOR YOU

How come my gas bill is still high and I don't run the furnace at all? Do they charge a minimum price?

I know my gas company "National Grid" does increase their rates over the winter but not over the summer. Best way to check this is see how many therms you used last month and compare it to this month. Also check last months rate and compare it to this months. Sometimes gas meters are not available to read by the gas company, for example, the meter is in the basement. The gas company then "estimates" your gas bill. Even if you did not use ANY gas they will assume you use the average for that month. The average comes from past readings over the last couple of years. This can work in your favor as well. In the really cold years you will use more gas than you pay for.

what is a consperacy charge and do you have to serve time for it in wv?

Conspiracy to commit a particular crime means that you get together and make a plan to commit that crime, and one person in the group takes a concrete step toward implementing that plan. If you plan with two other people to rob a bank using a rented truck, you can be arrested for conspiracy to commit burglary if someone in the group goes out and rents that truck. The jail time is real. Your friend should find a lawyer.

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Analysis of High Performance Supercharged Dam12t Engine of Dong'an Power Vehicle
Analysis of High Performance Supercharged Dam12t Engine of Dong'an Power Vehicle
At present, turbocharging technology has been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. More and more passenger cars begin to significantly reduce engine displacement in order to meet increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations. "If you win without fighting, you will get more." in this context, as a listed enterprise that developed small gasoline engines earlier in China, Dong'an power complies with the development law of the automotive industry, looks forward to the development trend of automotive power, devotes itself to developing small displacement, high-power and high torque turbocharged gasoline engines, and launches dam12t turbocharged series engines. This series of models fully apply the current mainstream technologies such as intake and exhaust double VVT, variable displacement oil pump, high-efficiency lean burn and electronic vacuum pump. The rising (net) power and rising (net) torque reach 75kW and 150n · m respectively (see the external characteristic curve of dam12t engine), and the engine power performance reaches the leading level in the same industry.External characteristic curve of dam12t-pfi series engineApplication of cutting-edge technology, small displacement and large powerThrough sufficient technical reserves and forward-looking layout of Dong'an power, dam12t supercharged engine and supercharged direct injection series are developed on the same platform and produced on the same line. They have the characteristics of silence, precision design, lightweight, maturity, consistency and durability. Based on the new and efficient modular design, they have continuously variable timing valves The integrated design of cylinder head and exhaust manifold and other leading technologies not only maintain high efficiency, but also achieve a wide torque range, but also take into account the balance between high performance and low fuel consumption, which is highly consistent with the overall trend of the current domestic automobile market and policies.In addition to the application of exhaust gas Turbocharging Technology (turbo), dam12t series engines also apply many cutting-edge technologies. The combination of three cylinder engine structure and rubber damping balance shaft solves the problems of noise, vibration and ride comfort (NVH) performance defects of traditional three cylinder engine. The application of all aluminum cylinder block and aluminum sprayed cylinder liner can reduce the weight of the whole machine and improve the bonding rate and thermal conductivity at the same time. The application of cylinder head integrated exhaust manifold can shorten the warm-up time and effectively reduce fuel consumption and emission. Automatic tensioning wheel and elastic multi wedge belt are adopted to enhance the reliability of gear train and NVH performance. In addition, the selection of many technologies such as dual mass flywheel (DMF), idle start stop technology (STT), hollow sodium filled exhaust valve, honeycomb valve spring, mechanical vacuum pump and surface diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating has greatly improved the overall performance and competitiveness of dam12t engine. Whether it is the lightweight cylinder design of all aluminum alloy, the variable displacement electric control oil pump that greatly reduces friction, or the DLC coating that reduces friction resistance, the development team has painstakingly studied "fuel saving technology". The design and development engineers have handled every detail process involving power and fuel consumption to achieve highly competitive power and fuel consumption performance.Automobile laws and regulations drive low fuel consumption and practice the concept of energy conservationThe formation of the trend of domestic automobile engine turbocharging is the result of the joint action of many factors, such as industry regulations, automobile enterprise development and consumer demand. At the regulatory level, the fourth stage standard for fuel consumption of passenger cars has been implemented since January 1, 2016, and the average fuel consumption limit of passenger cars in 2020 is 5 L / 100 km. The policy red line has been drawn, and automobile enterprises must make technical response in reducing energy consumption. In the long run, the development of new energy vehicles is an important strategy for the development of automobile industry. In the medium and short term, the application of more energy-efficient turbocharging technology is the common choice of most automotive power enterprises. In terms of consumption, since October 1, 2015, the state has implemented the policy of halving the purchase tax of passenger cars with a capacity of 1.6L and below, and small displacement models have been highly praised by the consumer market; After the implementation of the policy, the sales proportion of small displacement turbocharged models has been greatly improved. Better power performance and fuel economy under the same displacement are more favored by users, which is also the technical feature of turbocharged models. It is the long-term technological development and accumulation that makes the small displacement turbocharged models have a broad market foundation.With superior power performance and good fuel economy, dam12t series supercharged engine has attracted much attention. At present, some automobile enterprises have shown strong interest in dam12t series engines. Several special projects for automobile engine matching have been officially approved, and the preliminary confirmation of automobile engine matching scheme has been completed.In depth market research to boost vehicle power upgradingIn order to achieve the average fuel consumption limit of domestic passenger vehicles in 2020, the fourth stage standard will further tighten the requirements for the limit of single vehicle fuel consumption and the average target value of enterprises, and assess single vehicles and enterprises at the same time. In the face of the most stringent fuel consumption regulations in history, the lightweight and miniaturized design of the engine and the application of energy-saving, efficient and advanced technology have become the preferred solution to solve the fuel consumption problem of the whole vehicle.In order to meet the demand of domestic economical passenger car powertrain products and respond to national automobile industry laws and regulations, Dong'an power has developed from the comprehensive popularization of low-cost fuel-saving technologies such as full intake VVT EGR, double VVT and three cylinder arrangement in the initial stage, to the development and application of exhaust gas Turbocharging Technology and incremental engine technology, to today's in cylinder direct injection and long-term planning of hybrid power in the future, While meeting the legal limits of fuel consumption at different stages, Dong'an power, from the perspective of vehicle customers, uses relatively low-cost engine product solutions to improve the competitiveness of vehicle models, so as to respond to automobile industry policies, practice the concept of energy-saving, low-carbon and environmental friendly vehicles, and improve the market competitiveness of engine products. This platform is the company's first public platform for supercharged / Supercharged direct injection models, highlighting the advantages of high performance, low cost and cost performance; To explore the uniqueness, it is the only engine suitable for FF, FR and Mr layout at the same time in China, filling the gap of small displacement supercharged models in independent engine enterprises. Obviously, the domestic self-developed dam12t series models represented by Dong'an power, with "small displacement, high power and high torque" as the most distinctive label in the current turbocharging era, deeply cater to the dual needs of consumers for strong power and low energy consumption, and tend to be unified with the increasingly stringent fuel consumption standards of the state for passenger vehicles. Dong'an power dam12t series engine is prospectively developed, seizing the opportunity and taking the east wind of the turbocharging market.In the next five years, the market share of turbocharged engines may exceed 35%, and the competition among automobile enterprises will focus on small displacement turbocharged engines; How to obtain greater power with smaller displacement will be a common problem faced by major automobile enterprises.
Is Having Politicians in Charge of the Money Supply Like Having Dracula in Charge of the Blood Bank?
Is Having Politicians in Charge of the Money Supply Like Having Dracula in Charge of the Blood Bank?
Is having politicians in charge of the money supply like having Dracula in charge of the blood bank?more like having bill clinton in charge of an all girl private college— — — — — —What happens when the money supply growth rate goes up?in case you think of of money basically as yet another tradeable tool (which it incredibly is), the extra there is, the fewer it is worth (or the fewer you ought to purchase with it). In concept, if furnish grows thirteen% then its cost could shrink thirteen% yet there are different intangible aspects such the marketplace's own theory of cost that is affecting a curency's procuring potential and replace cost. additionally in case you unload extra earnings circulate, it takes it sluggish for all of it to percolate. by using that factor, the country's important economic employer has been monitoring inflation and could take action to stay away from further inflationary pressures (much less procuring potential), scuffling with procuring potential from being decreased by using the entire thirteen%— — — — — —Have we been ripped off??? If we had 7.7 trillion in the money supply(2008) and we print 7 trillion more?If the pie is full of roaches, it's not worth anything. But here's another thing to ponder. We've gifted over $13 trillion (and we are on the hook for potentially $23.7 trillion) to the criminal banksters to cover their gambling debts caused by the collapse in the housing mortgage market. But all mortgage and credit card debt of every American could be retired for only $11.5 trillion.— — — — — —How is the money supply increased throughout years?Actually, the central bank increases the money supply by buying bonds. It cannot directly control the rates charged by commercial banks (unless the state also controls the banks)— — — — — —How can the Fed reduce money supply other than by raising interest rates or in some way reducing commercial bank lending?'Money supply" is one of those 'economist-speak" terms that gets lost in the translation between economists and just plain regular folk.Realistically, we don't use 'money," we use credit with the occasional transaction being conducted in cash. 'Money Supply" is more or less meaningless from that perspective. What economists mean is the access to money, as in 'potential borrowers will be incentivised to borrow by lower interest rates, and discouraged by higher interest rates." Well, duh. But does that affect or impact the amount of currency in circulation? Not so much.The term goes back to the days of gold standards when realistically, and logically, if a government agreed to back its currency 100% with gold, the amount of circulating currency had to be contained to prevent the money supply from expanding beyond the amount of gold backing it. Very difficult to do when credit is introduced into the equation, and just one of the many reason that a 'gold standard" is simply not practical.How can the Fed reduce money supply other than by raising interest rates or in some way reducing commercial bank lending?— — — — — —What variables are to be considered to calculate the impact of the money supply on stock markets, and what tests can I do?Also when you say money supply- is it money supply in the broader economy which may include global liquidy as well, which brodens the nature of study. I am pointing this because the loose monetary policy from the US and the Europen central banks had considerable impact on Indian stocks through FII money even though the monetary policy was highly conservative in India and the supply was tight.— — — — — —You ever get the impression that a lot of Liberals have no clue how economics works and money supply?The OTHER 'mainstream' party has that problem and it's endemic with them. THATs why the likes of the Tea Party have many, many problems and the USA is paying for it, BIG TIME !!— — — — — —Given a limited money supply, does a rise in an individual's earnings imply that others now have less to spend?yea...thats y its bad if somone hordes there money then again...the gov is always printing money but there is such a large amount of cash out there, an individual does not so much affect the overall....— — — — — —Did Obama really triple the money supply as some have suggested?NO he just tripled our debt
Home Energy Storage, Vehicle-to-grid Chargers  the Future Is Almost Here
Home Energy Storage, Vehicle-to-grid Chargers the Future Is Almost Here
Home energy storage, vehicle-to-grid chargers – the future is almost here –Smart linked mass battery storage systems and bi-directional vehicle-to-grid chargers (using electric car batteries) are being seen as a potential solution to smoothing out demand. When demand is high, you sell back surplus stored energy back to the grid at a premium - hopefully in the future it will be a seamless process handled by your energy provider, or even by blockchain trading platforms. This could mitigate the need for fossil fuel driven backup generation - some of which are diesel - that kick-in when demand outstrips supply. Currently energy producers are paid to have backup generation waiting in-case of power outages or sudden increases in demand.— — — — — —How will the declining cost of lithium-ion batteries change renewable energy storage around the world and in the United States by the year 2025? What effect will this change have on the lives of people, animals, and the environment?Currently Lithium-ion batteries are nudging their theoretical maximum efficiency. A reduction in cost will not have much effect on the market unless very substantial. For any effect on people's lives etc. there would need to be a major breakthrough in battery technology, together with a huge upgrade in the grid infrastructure.— — — — — —Is it possible to create a compressed/freezed air energy storage solution that also purifies the air of pollutants?Compressing air (for energy storage or other purposes) heats it up, expansion cools. For energy storage the heat has to be stored, a detailed description can be found here. Cooling air further would require additional energy input - twice, for cooling and then again for reheating upon expansion. Again, see the link for details. Compression concentrates dust etc (1g dust per 1m³ at 1bar becomes 6g/m³ at 6bar approx). It's certainly viable to have a coarse filter to protect the compressors, then a fine filter for the high pressure air. If this is what you mean by pollutants. This is farily common in compressed air systems for pneumatics: Fine filter and dewatering are installed downstream of the compressors.— — — — — —What Renewable Energy and Energy Storage Did, and Didn’t, Get from Congress This WeekClean energy industry groups are cheering the last-minute inclusion of key tax incentive extensions and billions of dollars in research and development funds that found their way into the $2.4 trillion spending package and coronavirus relief bill passed by Congress on Monday night. UPDATE: President Donald Trump signed the bills into law on Sunday night, averting a government shutdown and allowing $900 billlion in relief funds to begin flowing. But solar and wind power groups and energy storage advocates did not get all they've been asking for from Congress in the bill - and they are seeking support for those additional policies from the incoming Biden-Harris administration and lawmakers from both parties. What is in the bill: Tax credits, renewables on public lands There's no doubt that solar and wind power will benefit from the Investment Tax Credit extensions included in the bill. For solar, that includes a two-year extension of the ITC at its current 26 percent through 2022 and at 22 percent through 2023, as well as an extended Jan. 1, 2026 deadline for completing projects that have claimed the credit based on when they started construction under "safe-harbor" provisions. "That's a pretty significant change," Abigail Ross Hopper, CEO of the Solar Energy Industries Association, said in a Tuesday webinar. "As we think about this solar decade, this gets us a lot of the way there." Offshore wind also gained full 30 percent ITC credits for projects started by the end of 2025. That will bolster a nascent industry that's seen delays in federal permitting that could have threatened the build-out of a massive new clean energy resource in the coming decade, according to Dan Shreve, Wood Mackenzie's head of global wind research. These "commonsense emergency relief measures" represent "a bipartisan vote of support for the renewable industry and the hundreds of thousands of Americans building our clean energy future," Gregory Wetstone, CEO of the American Council on Renewable Energy, said in a statement. Solar and wind groups were also cheered by language in the bill to promote the development of renewable energy on public lands - something that the incoming Biden-Harris administration may be able to accomplish via executive action at the Interior Department and DOE, rather than through acts of Congress. This includes instructions to DOI's Renewable Energy Coordination Office to streamline permitting processes on public lands, giving incoming Interior Secretary Deb Haaland the authority to reduce lease rates on solar and wind projects, and setting a target of 25 gigawatts of renewable energy on public lands by 2025. "Now the hard stuff comes in: making sure the administration takes that legislation and enacts it in a way that's positive and beneficial," SEIA Chairman Bill Shuster said in Tuesday's webinar. Renewable and energy storage in the $35 billion energy R&D package Solar, wind and energy storage groups also praised the portions of Energy Department research and development funding aimed at clean energy technologies, including $1.5 billion for solar power, $625 million for wind power and $1.08 billion for energy storage over the next five years. Programs targeted for research range from improving efficiency and lowering manufacturing and materials costs, to pilot projects and software platforms to integrate these technologies into the broader power grid at the local or systemwide scale. The R&D package also includes $2.2 billion over the next decade for DOE grid modernization research, grants for demonstration projects and tools for local and state grid regulators to accelerate the adoption of new technology and grid controls, and a hybrid microgrid program for isolated communities. Some of this funding will help "reduce the 'soft' costs of solar and batteries to further expand access" to solar power, said Anne Hoskins, chief policy officer at leading U.S. residential solar installer Sunrun, in a statement. The energy storage R&D programs set in place by the Better Energy Storage Technology Act also offer energy storage companies opportunities to expand their role in renewable-powered grids, said Jason Burwen, VP of policy for the Energy Storage Association. Beyond $500 million for energy storage research and development, the bill directs $71 million per year, amounting to $355 million over five years, to competitive solicitations for energy storage demonstration projects open to states, utilities and private companies. Those projects are meant to demonstrate "not only new technologies but [also] working out new applications and new business models," Burwen said in a Tuesday interview. That's critical for an energy storage sector that's focused not just on reducing battery costs but also on "making sure their full value to the grid can be realized." "If you can not interconnect effectively, if you can not provide the flexibility you can provide because the grid's not designed to see it, you can not realize all the value you can offer." The bill did contain "sense of Congress" language directing the Energy Department to prioritize R&D to provide 100 percent "clean, renewable, or zero-emission energy sources." But it does not include Biden administration priorities such as a clean energy standard or carbon-pricing mechanism that could reduce electricity sector carbon emissions to zero by 2035. These policies face an uphill battle in Congress. Republicans may retain their Senate majority depending on the results of the January runoff elections for Georgia's two U.S. Senate seats, and Democrats will hold a narrow 10-seat margin in the House. "We are certainly engaged with many of the groups that are engaged in a carbon-pricing mechanism. But I am not sure it's the right time," Erin Duncan, SEIA's vice president of congressional affairs, said in Tuesday's webinar. The tax credit extensions in Monday's bill also lack the "direct pay" or refundability options being sought by wind and solar developers worried that the economic downturn caused by the coronavirus pandemic will reduce the demand for tax equity investments from banks and financial institutions. While it's possible that another opportunity for this could emerge in Congress next year, "when it comes to direct pay, a lot of Republicans do not have an appetite for that," SEIA's Shuster said. Nor does the bill offer the energy storage and solar industries another key plank in their federal policy agenda: creating an ITC for standalone energy storage systems. While that was part of SEIA's 100-day agenda for the Biden administration, "it did not make the cut in this extenders package," Duncan said. ESA's Burwen agreed that a standalone storage tax credit was a key goal for future legislation: "We are going to keep pushing," he said. ESA and SEIA are also seeking clarity from the Biden administration over the still-uncertain tax credit status of batteries paired with solar power. Under the terms of an IRS advice letter from 2015, storage costs can be counted as part of a solar installation's costs subject to the ITC, if the batteries are charged at least 75 percent of the time by the solar panels, rather than from the grid, over the course of a year. But this understanding has never been followed up by formal IRS guidance that could clarify the uncertainties contained in the advice letter, Burwen pointed out. As for tax credits for batteries being retroactively added to solar systems, a 2018 IRS advice letter indicates that residential solar PV owners can apply the ITC to batteries added later - but only if they are charged completely from solar. UPDATE: Similar IRS guidance indicating that batteries added to a wind farm after it is build can be eligible for ITC indicates that the same principle could hold to adding batteries to utility-scale solar projects, Keith Martin, a partner with the law firm Norton Rose Fulbright, told Greentech Media. Clear IRS guidance opening up ITC eligibility for batteries being added to existing solar installations of all sizes could be a boon for projects and solar-rich regions facing a disconnect between when solar power is produced and when the grid needs it most, Burwen said. "The single biggest immediate step the Biden administration could take [would be] to formalize that IRS guidance [and] make it retroactive," he said. "That alone could be a huge boost to storage."
Best 18650 Batteries and Chargers - Equivalents and Replacements
Best 18650 Batteries and Chargers - Equivalents and Replacements
Best 18650 Batteries and Chargers - Equivalents and ReplacementsBest 18650 Batteries and Chargers - Equivalents and Replacements Rechargeable lithium ion 18650 batteries are common power source choice for many electric and electronic devices often found on small and large fishing or leisure boats and even kayaks. Since their characteristics degrade over time, they must be occasionally replaced - and choosing right replacement can be a nightmare, but it should not be. Also, after replacing with new batteries, old batteries should be recycled. 18650 batteries are commonly found in diving, tactical, EDC and other flashlights, in battery packs powering cordless electric tools, marine electronics, trolling motors etc. Before buying new 18650 batteries, there are many things to consider. Dimensions - official physical dimensions of 18650 rechargeable batteries are (diameter x length) 18.6 × 65.2 mm (0.73 x 2.56 inches). When these values are rounded, they are 18 mm diameter, 65 mm length, hence the name '18650' battery. But, these dimensions differ slightly from model to model, but in most situations, these small variations are not so important. Other very similar batteries are: - 16650 battery - same length, but slightly narrower batteries. Some devices accept both 16650 and 18650 batteries, just be aware that 16650 batteries often have lower capacity and come unprotected (no protective electronics in the battery), - 19670 battery - slightly larger battery than 18650 battery. 19670 batteries commonly come with protective electronics (protect the battery from short circuit, overcharging, prevent overheating and similar), and are known as 'protected 18650 batteries'. But there are also unprotected 19650 batteries, often offering really large capacities, especially when compared with high-drain, protected 18650 batteries. - CR123A battery - this is primary (non-rechargeable) 3 V lithium battery, 17 mm diameter, 34.5 mm in length. Some devices accept both 18650 battery or two CR123A batteries for one 18650 battery. Main advantage of CR123A batteries is their extra long shelf life - up to or even more than 10 years. For example, some EDC flashlights for occasional use recommend CR123A batteries and for regular use they recommend 18650 batteries. Of course, there are also rechargeable CR123A batteries, offering 3.6-3.7 V per cell, slightly smaller capacity than primary CR123A - such batteries are often designated as 16340 batteries. - 17670 battery has twice the length of standard CR123A battery and often can be used instead of 18650 (if additional 2 mm are not problem). Note: having an option to replace 18650 battery with another battery sounds great, but the best replacement battery for 18650 battery is another 18650 battery :) Protected battery - protected lithium ion batteries come with a protective electronic circuitry which monitors parameters of the battery and protect the battery from overcharging, over-discharging, high charging/discharging currents, prevent overheating etc. Since lithium ion batteries pack lot of energy in small packages, having protective circuitry is recommended. On the other hand, this circuitry decreases capacity of the battery. IMHO, for small devices like flashlights and similar, where current drain is rarely above 1-2 Amps, protective electronics in batteries is overkill, especially since many modern flashlights already comes with smart electronic controllers which also monitor the status of the battery. Button or flat type - some models come with button top side (positive), while some batteries come with flat top side. Before purchasing new 18650 batteries, be sure to check your old batteries - most devices and chargers accept both models, but better safe than sorry. Photo above batteries - on the right is positive (top) side of 'flat top' battery and on the left side is positive (top) side of 'button top' battery. Soldering tabs or not? When building a battery pack, soldering tabs help significantly. However, be very careful when building custom 18650 battery pack - be sure that all of the batteries come from the same manufacturer, that they are of the same model and preferably the same batch. Connecting in parallel or in series - connecting lithium ion batteries in parallel can be done using special circuitry. Reason is that even the slightest variations in capacity and chemistry can lead to over-discharging or overcharging some cells, which can lead to overheating and possible fire hazard. Connecting lithium batteries in series is relatively safe, when protected cells from the same manufacturer are used. When individual cell is, for example over-discharged, it will shut off and whole pack will stop to provide energy. If more such packs are connected in parallel, this can lead to over-stressing remaining 'sub-packs'. When connecting 18650 batteries in series, they provide: High capacity vs. high current 18650 batteries - some batteries are optimized for capacity, some batteries are optimized for high discharge currents. High capacity 18650 batteries come with stated capacities of 5000 or even 6000 mAh, but their continuous discharge currents are rarely larger than, for example, 10 Amps. Some batteries can safely provide 30 A, continuously, but such batteries rarely have capacity of more than 2000-2500 mAh. Newer lithium ion manganese oxide batteries improve maximum stated continuous currents, while having would ecent' capacity. Choosing the right battery depends on your application - if it is flashlight or electronic device, requiring just few Amps, go for high capacity models. For high power devices, go for high current batteries. Note: if you need lightweight fishfinder or even trolling lithium battery, consider purchasing finished lithium battery pack - some manufacturers even offer lithium packs with built-in protective circuitry allowing such packs to be charged using lead-acid battery chargers. On the other hand, such battery packs cost much more than lead-acid fishfinder or trolling motor batteries. However, there are many companies that buy finished cells and wrap them with their own markings. Such wrapped batteries can come from reputable manufacturers and can be quite good batteries, but there are also cheep knockouts which are simply not good. And NOT safe. So, when buying 18650 batteries, be sure to get batteries from reputable sellers/manufacturers and the batteries with good reviews. Note: Amazon affiliate links in the table open in the new windows. Although there are many other 18650 batteries on the market (with higher claimed capacities, very low self-discharge rates, high dicharge currents), if you need general, sturdy and tough battery, go for Samsung 25R - it is very popular battery with good maximum current and would ecent' capacity. We say would ecent', but this battery can withstand many charge/discharge cycles, it is reliable and is very often used as a 'standard battery' for evaluating other batteries. Also, LG HG2 is very good battery with nice balance between capacity and maximum continous current. If you need good and reliable, high capacity battery, go for Panasonic NCR18650B 3400 mAh battery. There are 18650 batteries on the market with larger capacity, even with good reviews, but . Last thing than a fishermen or outdoor enthusiasts need is failed equipment because of the cheap, unreliable batteries. Never go cheap with batteries and similar equipment - one day, your life can depend on it. Note: author of this article has Masters degree in electronics and he still uses dual purpose AGM lead acid battery as the main boat battery and he does NOT plan on moving to lithium ion batteries as the main boat battery any time soon - actually, probably not for next few decades. However, his main flashlights are powered via rechargeable 18650 batteries AND non-rechargeable CR123A (with few new CR123A as spare batteries), just to be sure :) What Does IMR, IFR, ICR, INR Stand For? Often, one can see letters IMR, IFR and ICR as part of battery labels. - IMR batteries are based on LiMn 0 (Lithium Manganese Oxide) chemistry, their nominal voltage is 3.6 - 3.7 V, maximum recommended charging voltage is 4.2 V. IMR batteries commonly have smaller capacity, but are capable of delivering stronger currents. - IFR batteries are based on LiFePO (Lithium Iron Phosphate) chemistry, their nominal voltage is 3.2 - 3.3 V per cell, maximum recommended charging voltage is 3.5 - 3.6 V. - ICR batteries are based on LiCoO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) chemistry, their nominal voltage is 3.6 - 3.7 V, with maximum recommended charging voltage 4.2 V. They commonly have higher capacities, but maximum allowed currents are limited to just few C, if even that. - INR batteries are based on LiNiMnCoO (Lithium Manganese Nickel) chemistry. Very similar to IMR batteries, they can provide plenty of currents, with slightly lower capacity. Note: unprotected ICR batteries vent out easily, but other chemistry batteries must be treated with respect, too. Also, there are other technologies, including hybrid technologies like: Lithium Nickel Cobalt Oxide (LiNiCoO ), Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (LiNiCoAlO ), etc. When buying good 18650 battery charger, there are few things to consider, like: - charging of all 18650 battery types, regardless of their chemistry, - optional charging of other batteries, not just 18650 batteries, - charging of different batteries at the same time, etc. Big brands like Sony, LG, Samsung and Panasonic have very good chargers, but there also chargers from other companies that perform exceptionally well. Following table lists some of the most popular, high quality, 18650 battery chargers (alphabetic order): Note: Amazon affiliate links in the table open in the new window. Obviously, there are many more 18650 battery chargers, but these chargers are very popular for their features and are often considered 'the best' on the market. But which one is really 'the best'? Well, it depends on many things, but IMHO, if you are not 100% sure, be sure to check NiteCore DigiCharger D4 Amazon link.
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