Damage of Cellulose-based Materials

Damage of cellulose-based materials

Damage of Cellulose-based Materials 1

The gray silverfish is able to feed on paper and similar materials comprising cellulose. In a comparative screening for cellulolytic activity, the gray silverfish was found to have the highest relative cellulase activity, by far exceeding that of other cellulose-digesting insects like Conocephalus strictus (Orthoptera), the termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae), Cryptocercus roaches (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae) and Scolytinae bark beetles (Coleoptera). The highest activity of plant cell wall degrading enzymes is found in the head and especially in the foregut of the gray silverfish. Endoglucanase, which breaks down the cellulose chain into smaller fragments, is found in both the head and foregut part of the digestive tract, whereas -glucosidase, which catalyses the final degradation into glucose, is present in the foregut, but not in the head tissue; -xylosidase activity is very low in the head, but the enzyme is present in the foregut. Polygalacturonase activity is not observed in C. longicaudata. A cellulose-rich diet does not increase the cellulase activity, suggesting that the production of these cellulolytic enzymes is not diet-regulated. Although a mixed diet is necessary for the natural development of C. longicaudata, it can survive more than 600 days on a diet of cellulose alone. As such, the gray silverfish is a threat to cultural heritage institutions storing books, sheet music, paintings and similar objects. A Swedish survey on the damage impact of C. longicaudata reports attacks on: watercolor paintings; packing material; cartons; books, where the outer cover, glued areas inside of the cover and marbled paper were eaten; historical documents of handmade paper; paper documents; transcripts; stamps in showrooms; newly produced signs labels in showrooms; historical paper labels on objects; mounting paper on the back of a photograph; roll painting in genuine silk, mounted with starch paste on masonite; insects caught in adhesive traps.

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Does blown in cellulose insulation work for soundproofing?

This Site Might Help You. RE: Does blown in cellulose insulation work for soundproofing? I want live in a side by side duplex and want to soundproof between the two houses. My neighbor bangs her music a lot, in the middle of the night as well. We got an estimate of $1350.00 to insulate all four walls-from the inside. He says this will help with soundproofing, I already know it will.

Damage of Cellulose-based Materials 2

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Cellulose Based Materials for 3D Printing

Cellulose is an ideal raw material for electrical insulation components, but the manufacturing of products requires a considerable measure of craftsmanship. In the NOVUM project coordinated by VTT , the raw materials and manufacturing methods are developed side by side. One of the goals is an automated 3D printing line. The plan is also to make use of the solution, for example, in cruise ships and the automotive industry, in which the aim is to replace oil-based plastics with bio-based materials. For further information see the IDTechEx report on Bioplastics 2020-2025 Cellulose is a popular insulation material in electrical power transformers because it is clean and capable of resisting high temperatures, and it remains firm in oil used in transformers for both insulation and cooling purposes. However, the raw material must be packaged into the moulds manually, and a variety of different moulds are required. The process also consumes energy and produces plenty of waste. With the current methods, the value of production is approximately EUR 1 billion a year. The EU-funded NOVUM project, which lasts for 4.5 years, develops automated methods for the production of cellulose-based electrical insulation components and for other applications such as the automotive industry and cruise ships. The project started in October 2017, and the international research group has managed to limit the manufacturing methods to the most promising ones: 3D printing and foam forming. Foam forming, on the other hand, makes it possible to save energy in the manufacturing process. In addition to efficiency, our goal is to save energy and material. Alongside the manufacturing methods, we are developing cellulose-based raw materials to suit the selected methods and applications the best possible way," says Heli Kangas, Technology Manager from VTT. As the research group works on developing cellulose-based materials and the manufacturing methods, it also investigates which other applications could be potential for the combination, in addition to transformers. A good starting point for the applications is the need to produce individual products or small series easily or to replace plastic parts with renewable material. The NOVUM project also involves Brinter, developer of 3D printing technology in Finland, AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland, ABIS, an engineering company from Poland, JRS, supplier of renewable materials from Germany and Vertech Group, a sustainability expert from France. In addition to coordination work, VTT's main focus in the project lies in material development. In order for cellulose to be 3D printable, it must be made thermoplastic, that is, pliable at an elevated temperature. Thermoplastic cellulose-based materials similar to oil-based plastics have previously been developed at VTT. However, for NOVUM project applications, it is important that the cellulose-based material also contains pure cellulose as much as possible as this is essential for insulation materials. In addition to modifying the material to ensure compatibility with the manufacturing process, the material's properties, such as its strength and heat resistance, are also adjusted in accordance with the application requirements. Irrespective of the exact composition of the material, it is already clear that the pieces produced can be ground and re-used as raw material on the same production line as many as eight times.

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