Pressure Safety Valves

Pressure safety valves

Pressure Safety Valves 1

Pressure safety valves or PSVs are usually used as a final safety solution when all previous systems fail to prevent any further pressure accumulation and protect vessels from rupture due to overpressure by their designed action

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Functional requirements of artificial heart valves

An artificial heart valve should ideally function like a natural heart valve. The functioning of natural heart valves is characterized by many advantages: Minimal regurgitation - This means that the amount of blood leaking backwards through the valve as it closes is small. Some degree of valvular regurgitation is inevitable and natural, up to around 5 ml per beat. However, several heart valve pathologies (e.g. rheumatic endocarditis) may lead to clinically significant valvular regurgitation. A desirable characteristic of heart valve prostheses is that regurgitation is minimal over the full range of physiological heart function. Minimal transvalvular pressure gradient - Whenever a fluid flows through a restriction, such as a valve, a pressure gradient arises over the restriction. This pressure gradient is a result of the increased resistance to flow through the restriction. Natural heart valves have a low transvalvular pressure gradient as they present little obstruction to the flow through themselves, normally less than 16 mmHg. A desirable characteristic of heart valve prostheses is that their transvalvular pressure gradient is as small as possible. Non-thrombogenic - Natural heart valves are lined with an endothelium comparable with the endothelium lining the heart chambers, so they are not normally thrombogenic (i.e. they do not cause blood clots). Blood clots can be hazardous because they can lodge in, and block, downstream arteries (e.g. coronary arteries, leading to heart attack [myocardial infarction]; or cerebral arteries, leading to stroke). A desirable characteristic of artificial heart valves is that they are non- or minimally thrombogenic. Self-repairing - Valve leaflets retain some capacity for repair thanks to regenerative cells (e.g. fibroblasts) in the connective tissue from which the leaflets are composed. As the human heart beats approximately 3.4×109 times during a typical human lifespan, this limited but nevertheless present repair capacity is critically important. No heart valve prostheses can currently self-repair, but tissue-engineered valves may eventually offer such capabilities. Rapid dynamic response

Pressure Safety Valves 2

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Hydraulic valves

These valves are usually very heavy duty to stand up to high pressures. Some special valves can control the direction of the flow of fluid and act as a control unit for a system. Classification of hydraulic valves Classification based on function:Pressure control valves (PC Valves) Flow control valves (FC Valves) Direction control valves (DC Valves) Classification based on method of activation:Directly operated valve Pilot operated valve Manually operated valve Electrically actuated valve Open control valve Servo controlled valves manifold

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Types of valves

Piston valve, a part in many brass instruments, used to control notes. Poppet valve, a valve consisting of a hole and a tapered plug on the end of a shaft, typically used in instruments, engines, etc. Heart valve, valves in the heart that maintain the unidirectional flow of blood Vein valve, valves in veins and other fluid cords in body Lymphatic valve, valves in lymphatic vessels Vacuum tube, also called "thermionic valve", an electronic component Mercury-arc valve, a type of electrical rectifier tube

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Gas loaded surge relief valves

Piston-style gas-loaded surge relief valves operate on the balanced piston design and can be used in a variety of applications because it can handle high and low viscosity products while maintaining a fast speed of response. An inert gas, most commonly nitrogen, is loaded on the back side of the piston forcing the valve closed. The nitrogen pressure on the back side of the piston is actually what determines the valves set point. These valves will remain closed until the inlet pressure exceeds the set point/nitrogen pressure, at which time the valve will open from the high pressure and remain open as long as the process pressure is above the nitrogen pressure. Once the process pressure starts to decay, the valve will start to close. Once the process pressure is below the nitrogen pressure, the valve will go closed again. Advantages: Fast speed of response with soft closure to prevent generating a second surge event. Can be used on high viscosity products such as crude oil. Good flow characteristics (Cv) No blowdown, reseats at the set point.Disadvantages: Only as repeatable as the system controlling the nitrogen pressure. Performance is greatly impacted by any restrictions in the gas line between the relief valve and the plenum tank. Many manufacturers recommend burring the plenum for temperature stability.

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