Control Environment

Control environment

Control  Environment 1

A control environment, also called "Internal control environment", is a term of financial audit, internal audit and Enterprise Risk Management. It means the overall attitude, awareness and actions of directors and management (i.e. "those charged with governance") regarding the internal control system and its importance to the entity. They express it in management style, corporate culture, values, philosophy and operating style, the organisational structure, and human resources policies and procedures

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Pest control

RodentsCoumarins (4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives) are used as rodenticides for controlling rats and mice in residential, industrial, and agricultural areas. Warfarin is both odorless and tasteless, and is effective when mixed with food bait, because the rodents will return to the bait and continue to feed over a period of days until a lethal dose is accumulated (considered to be 1 mg/kg/day over about six days). It may also be mixed with talc and used as a tracking powder, which accumulates on the animal's skin and fur, and is subsequently consumed during grooming. The LD50 is 50-500 mg/kg. The IDLH value is 100 mg/m3 (warfarin; various species). The use of warfarin itself as a rat poison is now declining, because many rat populations have developed resistance to it, and poisons of considerably greater potency are now available. Other 4-hydroxycoumarins used as rodenticides include coumatetralyl and brodifacoum, which is sometimes referred to as "super-warfarin", because it is more potent, longer-acting, and effective even in rat and mouse populations that are resistant to warfarin. Unlike warfarin, which is readily excreted, newer anticoagulant poisons also accumulate in the liver and kidneys after ingestion. However, such rodenticides may also accumulate in birds of prey and other animals that eat the poisoned rodents or baits. Vampire batsWarfarin is used to cull vampire bat populations in areas where human-wildlife conflict is a concern. Vampire bats are captured with mist nets and coated with a combination of petroleum jelly and warfarin. The bat returns to its roost and other members of the roost become poisoned as well by ingesting the warfarin after reciprocal grooming. Suspected vampire bat roosts may also be coated in the warfarin solution, though this kills other bat species and remains in the environment for years. The efficacy of killing vampire bats to reduce rabies transmission is questionable, however; a study in Peru showed that culling programs did not lead to lower transmission rates of rabies to livestock and humans.

Control  Environment 2

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Political control

Elections are held by thirds, in three years out of four. 2004 saw boundary changes and all seats were up for re-election. Similarly, following boundary changes, all seats were up for re-election in 2018. The council was under the control of the Labour Party from its reconstitution in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, until 2004. The Liberal Democrats controlled the Council from 2004 until 2011, when the Labour Party regained control. There are currently 56 Labour councillors, 19 Liberal Democrat councillors and 3 Independent councillors.

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Prevention and control

Prevention of T. suis depends on the treatment and prevention of infections in animals, the removal of feces before the eggs can become embryonated, good hygiene, and public education.

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Surge control

Surge control is the use of different techniques and equipment in a hydraulic system to prevent any excessive gain in pressure (also known as a pressure surge) that would cause the hydraulic process pressure to exceed the maximum working pressure of the mechanical equipment used in the system

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Treatment and control

Parasiticides which are effective against the larvae include macrolytic lactones, such as ivermectin and moxidectin, and organophosphates, such as metrifonate (also known as trichlorphon) and dichlorvos.The best time to deworm horses against Gasterophilus intestinalis is after the first hard frost. This hard frost will kill the females so no new eggs can be laid on the horse that can be ingested. Meaning that the dewormer is acting on the larva attached to the stomach and will also decrease the amount of larva shed in the feces in the spring.

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Control structures

Control structures do not have special syntax in Smalltalk. They are instead implemented as messages sent to objects. For example, conditional execution is implemented by sending the message ifTrue: to a Boolean object, passing as an argument the block of code to be executed if and only if the Boolean receiver is true. The following code demonstrates this: Blocks are also used to implement user-defined control structures, enumerators, visitors, exception handling, pluggable behavior and many other patterns. For example: In the last line, the string is sent the message select: with an argument that is a code block literal. The code block literal will be used as a predicate function that should answer true if and only if an element of the String should be included in the Collection of characters that satisfy the test represented by the code block that is the argument to the "select:" message. A String object responds to the "select:" message by iterating through its members (by sending itself the message "do:"), evaluating the selection block ("aBlock") once with each character it contains as the argument. When evaluated (by being sent the message "value: each"), the selection block (referenced by the parameter "aBlock", and defined by the block literal "[:aCharacter | aCharacter isVowel]"), answers a boolean, which is then sent "ifTrue:". If the boolean is the object true, the character is added to a string to be returned. Because the "select:" method is defined in the abstract class Collection, it can also be used like this: The exception handling mechanism uses blocks as handlers (similar to CLOS-style exception handling): The exception handler's "ex" argument provides access to the state of the suspended operation (stack frame, line-number, receiver and arguments etc.) and is also used to control how the computation is to proceed (by sending one of "ex proceed", "ex reject", "ex restart" or "ex return").

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