Know About Coin,an Overview of Coin

An overview of coin

Where a player has not declared an international allegiance, nation is determined by place of birth. Squad correct as of August 16, 2019

Obsolete denominations of coin

Austro-Hungarian gulden (Austro-Hungarian forint), used from 1754 to 1892

Dutch guilder, used in the Netherlands from 1680 to 2002

Florin (Aragonese coin), minted in the 14th century

Florin (Australian coin), used from 1910 to 1966

Florin (English coin), a rare old gold coin valued at six shillings, used only in 1344

Florin (Irish coin), a two-shilling coin produced from 1928 to 1968

Florin (Italian coin), the fiorino d'oro minted in Florence in 1252, from which the name "florin" derives; the first gold coin minted in significant quantities in Western Europe since the 7th century

Florin (New Zealand coin), minted from 1933 to 1965

South German gulden, used from 1754 to 1873

Florin (British coin), British coin produced from 1849 to 1970 with its denomination inscribed variously one florin, two shillings, or with both denominations

The trial of coin

The trial opened in the High Court of Justice in London on 13 April 1964 before Mr Justice Lawton and a jury. Colin Duncan QC (with Brian Neill) appeared for Dering, while Lord Gardiner (with David Hirst and Louis Blom-Cooper) represented the defendants.

In court, Dering denied having carried out experimental operations. He claimed he removed prisoners' sexual organs because Schumann had asked Dering to assist him by removing the organs. He did not feel he could refuse, because he thought it was better for him to perform the operations than if they were performed by an untrained person. Furthermore, he claimed the organs he removed were already damaged, and that he removed them for the benefit of the prisoners' health. He also claimed he feared for his life if he did not comply with Schumann's request. Finally, he denied having operation without anaesthetics, and claimed that of the 17,000 operations he performed at Auschwitz, only about 130 were not ordinary proper operations.

The defence admitted that the figure of 17,000 'experiments' was inflated, and that some anesthetics was administered. However, they disputed Dering's claim that his life would have been in danger if he had not carried out the operations. They also disputed Dering's claim that the anesthesia was effective. The defense presented a number of witnesses who had been operated upon by Dering, as well as prisoners-doctors who had worked with Dering. The doctors testified that they had refused the Nazi doctors' requests to assist them in their experiments, and had not been punished as a consequence.

One of the trial's most dramatic moments occurred during the testimony of Dr Adlade Hautval, an imprisoned French psychiatrist who worked in the camp's hospital. She testified that she refused to assist the Nazi doctors in the experiments:

Gardiner: As a result were you shot?

Hautval: No

Gardiner: Were you punished in any way?

Hautval: No.She then testified that she told Dr Wirths that performing the operations was against her conception of medicine.Hautval: He asked me, "Cannot you see that these people are different from you?" and I answered him that there were several people different from me, beginning from him.

Gardiner: I shall not ask you again whether you were shot. Did Dr Wirths say anything further?

Hautval: He never said anything.The jury awarded Dering a halfpenny in damages, the smallest coin of the realm. Since publisher and author had paid a marginally larger token sum of 2 into court, Dering was liable for all the legal costs amounting to 25,000 from that point, due to court rules. Dering died, however, leaving Kimber saddled with the heavy legal costs.

At a news conference held at the Howard Hotel by Uris and publisher Kimber, Uris is reported to have made a comment that future editions of Exodus would omit Dr Dering's name. Uris and the publishers, William Kimber and Company, admitted that a paragraph in the book, referring to Auschwitz medical experiments, was defamatory to Dr Dering, but they also contended that it was true in substance, subject to certain qualifications.

The trial received extensive coverage. Breaking with tradition whereby it only reported judgments, The Times Law Report sent two reporters to report on the trial. The Times' reports were later published in book form (Auschwitz in England, 1965). It was said that the newspaper's circulation rose for the first time since the end of the Second World War as a result of its coverage.

Uris had copied his data from Underground by Joseph Tennenbaum when he referred to doctors working in Auschwitz.

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Ancient Coin Striking Temperature - Calgary Coin & Antique
Ancient coin striking temperature - Calgary Coin & AntiqueAs long as ancient coins have been collected numismatists have debated whether ancient coins were struck hot or cold. On seeing blacksmiths hammer glowing red iron into useful objects, many assume gold, silver or copper behave the same way so such coins would also have been struck while heated. That assumption is incorrect and I have written this website to explain why. I will keep this as simple as the subject allows, while providing links to more detailed discussions for those who wish to read further. A few terms that need defining: 1) Unit cell - The single building block atoms form as molten metal solidifies. 2) Crystal - A continuous unit of two or more unit cells joining by sharing atoms. 3) Grain - A larger volume of metal formed when two or more crystals grow together by physically interlocking, but not jointed by atomic bonding. In most numismatic literature when they refer to visible crystals they are actually referring to visible grains. 4) Alloy - a mix of two or more metals, either at the atomic unit cell level, or the grain level. 5) Malleability - a measure of how easily metals deformation under compression, sometimes referred to the softness of the metal. Higher malleability means more easily deformed so softer. Image from Subtech.com, under creative commons Body Centered Cubic (BCC) metals have unit cells of nine atoms. One atom in the center bonded to eight atoms forming a cube around it. Two BCC unit cells join to form a crystal by sharing the four atoms of a cube face with that face bonded to the center atoms of both cells. In larger structures each unit cell shares all six faces with adjoining cells and will be bonded to its own center atom and all six center atoms of the cells around it. This is a strong structure of low malleability. Face Centered Cubic (FCC) metals form unit cells of fourteen atoms, eight at the corners of a cube with the other six on the cube faces, like numbers on a dice. Two FCC unit cells join by sharing the five atoms of a cube face, repeating on all six faces in larger crystals. With no atoms in the center of each cube, the faces are only weakly bonded with high malleability as the cell faces can slip and join other cells when under compression. The malleability of on FCC metal is same at all temperatures below melting point so an FCC medal does not soften when heated. Further reading on BCC and FCC crystal structures Further reading as to why FCC metals are more malleable than BCC metals Below 910 C iron is a BCC metal of low malleability but when heated to between 910 C and 1394 C the atoms shift to an FCC structure of higher malleability. This allows blacksmiths to hammer red hot iron into shapes which once cooled are again hard as the iron reverts back to a BCC structure. This property is known as allotropy. Further reading on iron conversion from BCC to FCC at high temperatures Gold, silver and copper are FCC metals and like all FCC metals the malleability is the same at all temperatures below the melting point. This means heating does not increase malleability (softness) at higher temperatures in the way iron does. The FCC properties described above are how pure gold, silver and copper behave. Ancient refining was imperfect with an upper limit usually around 98.5% pure for gold and silver. The remaining 1.5% is a mix of various impurities each of too low percentage to have significant effect on the FCC structure and properties. Many ancient coins were struck on this "pure" metal but others were intentionally alloyed, usually silver with copper, gold with silver and/or copper, and copper with tin and sometimes zinc. Copper is soluble in silver up to about 7%, meaning copper atoms can displace up to 7% of the silver atoms in a silver unit cell. Silver is also soluble in copper at about 7% in the same way. Silver mixed with more than 7% copper will first dissolve 7% copper into the silver unit cells which form crystals and grains of silver. Excess copper forms copper unit cells dissolving 7% silver which form crystals and grains of copper. If there is more copper than silver only the percentage of silver and copper grains varies. The grain types disperse fairly evenly through the alloy. The exact malleability varies with the exact alloy but once formed all silver copper alloys are still FCC metals. Most ancient gold coins were relatively pure gold but some are alloyed with copper, silver or a mix of the two. Most alloys of gold with silver and/or copper are fully soluble in each other and all such alloys are FCC metals. Further reading about gold alloys The malleability of copper alloyed with tin can vary considerably depending on the percentage of tin, how quickly the alloy was cooled, and if it was reheated after cooling. A discussion of copper-tin alloy malleability is complex but for the purpose of this discussion it is only important to understand all alloys of copper and tin, even if lead are zinc are added, will be FCC metals. Further reading about copper alloys, although mostly focusing on modern alloys rather than ancient. As Gold, silver and copper alloys are all FCC metals; their malleability is not affected by temperature. As metals deform under compression dislocations can occur in the crystal structures resulting in work hardening where malleability is reduced and the metal becomes more fragile. Annealing is a process where the metal is heated for a few minutes to a temperature at which the atoms can realign to their original unit cells, eliminating dislocations thus returning to original malleability. Annealed FCC metals can then be cooled to room temperature with no decrease in malleability and there will be increase at higher temperatures. Cast gold, silver or copper (and their alloy) coin blanks are naturally annealed and can be struck as is. Blanks hammering flat will be work hardened and must be annealed before they can then be struck at room temperature. Further reading about work hardening Further reading about annealing Many people have experimented with hot and cold hammer striking of high relief coins. Most fail to produce satisfactory quality coins either hot or cold, but a few have demonstrated high relief tetradrachm sized silver coins can be successfully struck at room temperature. This video is titled "Badger Mint Hot Striking" but he took the blank flan from a bucket of flans with his unprotected fingers, which he could not have done is the flan was hot. I suspect "Hot Striking" they mean the flans had been heated to anneal them, not that the flans were struck while hot. This video leaves no doubt that the blanks are sitting in a pile and fully cool prior to striking. Gold, silver, copper and their alloys are FCC metals which once annealed are in their most malleable state at all temperatures. Striking while heated would not improve the ease of striking or the quality of the finished coins. Ancient people would not have understood the atomic structures involved but had been working with these metals for more than 1000 years by the time the first coins were struck in the mid-7th century BC. They would have understood how these metals behave and that striking on heated blanks would provide no advantage over striking at room temperature.
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