Why Is Non-renewable Energy so Cheap?

Why is non-renewable energy so cheap?It's not. Renewable energy, solar and wind are available cheaper than fossils in most places. Coal is being replaced by solar and wind in the USA for that reason. Meanwhile fossils need $5. 3T in government breaks plus war to secure oil and gas.Fossil fuels subsidised by $10m a minute, says IMFBrian Donovan's answer to Can solar power become a major power source in the coming 20 years? If so, why? If not, what are your ideas?

1. Designing an aircraft for a cyberpunk setting

My first thought is the V-22 Osprey. Being a real aircraft, you can find specs on Wikipedia and use that as a base for your design. It's VTOL, it's fairly fast (much faster than an airship), it's designed to cargo stuff around, and you can add weapons to it, so that's a good candidate for a cool, real-ish, flying base for a squad of image-conscious heroes.You should not expect a palace though. It's conceivable that you can build a flying tour bus for a handful of people, but it will be a tight fit and you wo not have much room for cargo inside (although you can still tow cargo outside). That said, big roomy coolcraft does not sound very cyberpunk to me, so maybe that's a bonus. And on the flip side, you can land it pretty much everywhere and camp in the great outdoors, and that will be more room than any sci-fi spaceship can give you.The question is tagged "engineering" but...And even then,Hands down, how you are refueling your plane will be the single biggest design decision to this question. I say that because it does not just shape the plane, it shapes the world and the plot.The basic option is to land and go to the gas station to get your kerosene. The first limitation here is landing somewhere that has the infrastructure and that welcomes you. Fiction gives you the opportunity to place private and/or pirate airfields all around the world. Private airfields means you will have to ask permission, book a slot and pay for it. Pirate airfields might not bother with such formalities, which is also a great way to induce shenanigans, like that time you landed in Ulaanbaatar and pirates kidnapped your pilot in broad daylight. You can also land anywhere in the plains of Africa or the steppes of Asia without being bothered by the neighbours and set up shop in the wild. That's good to do some basic maintenance, and if you can source some fuel from there it's a valid option, though you obviously lose the benefits of an established infrastructure.The other major limitation here is that when doing a Reykjavik-Jakarta to get to your next mission you will need to land once, twice, or maybe more. That means the problems above become recurring, and ultimately it's going to eat some precious time you might not be able to afford, especially if aforementionned shenanigans occur. Whether that's a pro or a con for your story is up to you.At any rate, if you go for that option, a straight-up Osprey-type aircraft will do the job just fine. We do have the technology to bring the gas station directly to you in-flight. The problem is you know that's stupid expensive because no commercial airlines do it, only the military can justify that spending somehow. A cyberpunk setting might allow you to introduce a commercial service of tankers to refuel private citizens such as your heroes. But that means flying an air-bus around for 'round-the-world trips is a common enough occurence that there's a market for it.That's a pretty big condition, and one that will potentially reshape your world. If refueling in-flight is widely available, your heroes are more likely to get contested by air-pirates, corporations, and private militaries having their own air-bases. If everybody has a cool air-base, your own cool air-base may lose its romanticism.Maybe the biggest limitation here is the stupid expensive part. Unless your team is swimming in cyberdollars, such a refuel might be more than they can afford. And that means they will have to hijack a tanker or two. While it is a pretty cool image, it brings a lot of complications to your travels. Your plane will need to be designed for combat, and obviously that means you should expect to spend a few chapters fighting for fuel at 30000 feet. If you are not interested in a world that's highly militarised, with weaponising your plane, or if risking your life for every refuel sounds too big of a hassle, you might consider this a bad option.The most realistic alternative would be solar power. Solar power is nice in that you might be able to fly indefinitely for cheap. You do have to account for daylight and the size of your batteries when planning your route. In some cases, that might be very inconvenient, but still, solar energy is cheap and readily available most of the time. It gives you the opportunity to stay in the air much longer without needing a refuel. Of course, your setting might have a better alternative. Whatever your energy source ends up being, it needs to be:Ideas may include a pocket nuclear reactor. Nuclear energy offers a lot of opportunities for shenanigans. You might also think of that refuels by sucking gases the atmosphere. For an added bonus, you can make it something found at a specific altitude. Imagine your aircraft needs a specific mix of hydrogen-2 and helium-7 that's only found just at the operational ceiling. And this is just an example with zero scientific backing, but if you establish it with enough confidence, it will play.Additional considerationAn aircraft needs space to fly. You are thinking "not a problem, the sky is full of that", but the sky also belongs to somebody. It's one thing to fly a drone or a Cessna without authorisation, but governments/corporations will notice a big military plane flying around the world and might take offence if it goes through their sovereign airspace.There is plenty of airpsace where nobody will come bother you. The middle of the ocean for instance, and the great deserts of the world. For everywhere else, you can embrace piracy with an IDGAF attitude (which is fairly cyberpunk), and hope you can dodge the jet fighters indefinitely. You can also add everybody's favourite part of a story: bureaucracy and red tape. Or you can do both: violating airspace of people with poor radar coverage or weak air forces, and file the paperwork where you are likely to get shot down on sight. That gives you the opportunity to hack the mainframe to give your aircraft the right credentials. That also gives you the opportunity to get caught with fake credentials and having to hightail it out of missile range.Which is to say your aircraft will be designed for speed. You might want to replace propellers with jets for more speed, and also for more coolness. That should give you a better chance when you need to make a quick exit.I would not bother with stealth. It only helps to the point where nobody looks up and sees your big airplane hovering above the headquarters of Megacorp, or if nobody can hear the roar of the engines from over the horizon. The only question you need to ask yourself is what fuel you put in the tank, and how you get that fuel.The rest has largely been solved by real engineers in the real world, which is to say your cool aircraft looks like an Osprey. It can be bigger, it can be haphazardly converted to solar power, and maybe you have tiltjets rather than tiltrotors, but a big VTOL is just about the gist of it.

2. What's the best alternative energy?

In the long run, it will be solar but the cost is excessive and technology still has a way to go. However we have much more Thorium then we do Uranium and Thorium does not need isotope refining to be used in Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors, we have enough to lasts thousands of years. Yes it is fission, but LFTR are passively safe, they are not pressurized so there will be no explosions like we saw in Chernobyl or Fukishima and they are passively cooled, a power outage would result in a safe shutdown, also their state at environmental pressures and temperatures is a solid salt that wo not dilute in water or air so it is not a problem if it leaks. It's 99% efficient compared with the 0.5% efficiency of US light water reactors, it's downside is that you can not make weapons grade plutonium and you can not make money selling fuel rods to the utilities so there's no ongoing revenue stream for the manufacturers of the plants. Also consider that coal and natural gas plants emit vast quantities of uranium and thorium, there is more energy in the nuclear fuel of the soot of coal plants than was produced by burning the coal. The issue is this uranium and thorium is considered natural and therefore not regulated however more radiation is spread upon the public then all the radiation from the atom bomb tests, from nuclear waste and from nuclear accidents together, it's just not accounted for by anyone. Shifting to a safe nuclear technology would actually reduce the public's radiation exposure. Many would say that such technology only produces electricity, but as Sandia Labs has demonstrated and their continuous production CR-5 reactor is about to go online, CO2 and H2O can be converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels so you do not even need to replace vehicles with electric vehicles to switch to nuclear, wind or solar power. Indeed most of the synthesis process is how we dilute our high sulfur diesel to meet federal ultra low sulfur diesel requirements ( Shell's GTL ). Without LFTR, synthetic fuels could be economic at the $4 a gallon of gasoline level if that price could be sustained for 12 years, with LFTR, the price may eventually come down significantly. If we wish to maintain our current economic comfort levels and improve safety and the environment, we need to develop Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors just as the Chinese are doing with their reactor scheduled for 2020. Note that the airforce successfully ran an experimental LFTR reactor from 1965 to 1969 for their atomic aircraft program, the reactor was even safely shutdown each weekend by just cutting the power on a small fan that kept a safety plug frozen as they did not have the staff to work on the weekends, none of the conventional reactors today can safely shutdown without continuous power and supervision. Indeed if we do not, we will not be able to complete with China's economic progress as they obtain an energy source many orders of magnitude less expensive than fossil fuels. Yes, someday, we will all be solar powered but we can sustain our economy with more easily to obtain energy from Thorium. Keep in mind that Thorium is currently a waste product of all mining activities.

3. Why don't hot countries make use of their potential solar energy?

Why? Simple. First, it's expensive... Second, if they build it, the oil companies will not have that much customers, as well as the electric companies, in which the gov't will have their commissions, and ofcourse some underground overpricing and stuff will occur which would be hard to get if they turn into solar power.. and Cold Countries like US and EU buy from them oil.. they can not buy sunlight , right? so yeah.

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What Are Some Ways to Keep My Hair Really Healthy?
Use professional shampoo & conditioner. I know it may seem like a rip-off, however all the shampoos like Pantene, Garnier, etc. have a high alcohol content....since the normal pH of your hair is 4.5-5.5, things containing high amounts of alcohol throw your hair all out of whack and cause breakage, split-ends, fly-aways, etc. The reason these shampoos make your hair feel soft is because they contain high amounts of humectants, which are just a cover for how damaging they really are! Another tip is ALWAYS use a thermal protector while applying heat. Heat appliances cause tons of damage to your hair. Usually this is a cream/clear gel you apply before blow drying. Never use a flat iron on hair that is not completely dry!1. Split End Help. ( 10 Points) !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!?For sure you should get a trim and maybe even cut your hair as short as you are comfortable doing it. You should for no reason straighten or dye your hair. Look for some Garnier Fructis or Pantene shampoos and conditioner for curly hair so that it extra moisturizes it and helps the split ends repair themselves. I say from experience that ppl with curly hair have really bad split ends, which is why we have special stuff in our hair products. The split ends wont magically go away in like a month or a few weeks, but you will see improvement after a while. Oh, and for sure DO NOT PICK THEM OFF!! It will just make it worse. Every two months until your hair is healthy get a trim. just maybe half an inch or an inch will be just fine. Eventually your hair will go back to normal. Good luck with that!.2. Whats the best shampoo conditioner for cheap?clever or V05 are solid inexpensive ($a million) shampoos, yet whilst it is composed of conditioner i could bypass Tresemme ($6) it does an somewhat solid interest. i take advantage of salon shampoo because of the fact i am form of a hair snob, yet I nonetheless use the cheap conditioner. Pantene is undesirable on your hair (too plenty protein and reasons alot of greater build up on the hair) so i does not bypass there. desire this permits! My hair is oily, superb, and colour-taken care of if that helps you any!3. How can I get my curly hair to be nice like Taylor Swift?Haha i have the same hair long and curly..but not pretty curly! im completely obsessed with taylor and her hair so i did so playing with it and what you really NEED to get is the conair hot sticks!! they are these little flexible curlers and they are not very expensive and i would look like a frizz ball without them!! you can like get them at walmart. anyways what i do when iwear my hair curly is like i get up and get in the shower and wash it and condition it and this may sound weird but dont use a whole lot of conditioner just enough to get it done cause it will help your hair hold the curl the just get out and towel dry your hair till it is just damp and then put a curling mouse in it and frizz serum then finish blow drying it straight! and you know have the curlers on like when your gettin in the shower and then just make sure the little light is on meaning that they are hot enough and then seperate your hair into pretty small peices (if you have really thick hair then you might need to buy two sets cause they only have 14 in them and you use small sections) and then start from the botom of your hair and role it through your hair and pin it together youll see the instructions on how to pin them together and make sure you wrap it all the way to the top of your head and leave them for like 15 or 20 minutes while your finishin gettin ready and then use like a light hairspray about 5 minutes before you take them out then your done. i know this thing was really long but its not that hard lol!!!! hope i helped good luck!!!!!!!!
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