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# Required Math for Setting Up a Laser Diode

Required math for setting up a laser diode

You do not need a diode and you do not really need a cap.All the math you need is this:Is the voltage source I intend to use within the voltage range the laser needs? Can that voltage source provide enough current? That is, is the amount of current that voltage source can provide equal to or greater than the amount of current the laser needs (also known as how much it "draws")?For some devices, such as plain LEDs without a driver, you do have to limit the amount of current, but this device has a circuit built into it that keeps it from "accidentally" drawing too much current, as long as the voltage applied to it is less than the maximum allowed

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Power Dissipation of Schottky Diode

Source is a 15V Solar panel & Load is the Battery.This may work, somewhat, for awhile.However, if charging lead-acid batteries, a whole other gamut of issues comes into play. Namely, that the battery should have dedicated charging circuitry. If none is used, the battery electrolyte may boil away, destroying it. Other modern battery types are no exception - a dedicated charging circuit is a really, really good idea. In the case of LiPo batteries, they can fail catastrophically if charged incorrectly.Another issue you will discover is that solar panels are quite inefficient most of the time, and to get the most power out of them requires a technique called Maxiumum Power Point Tracking or MPPT. Now this is not a requirement, but it will give a nice boost to the efficiency of the overall system.

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Zener diode

A Zener diode is a special type of diode designed to reliably allow current to flow "backwards" when a certain set reverse voltage, known as the Zener voltage, is reached. Zener diodes are manufactured with a great variety of Zener voltages and some are even variable. Some Zener diodes have a sharp, highly doped p-n junction with a low Zener voltage, in which case the reverse conduction occurs due to electron quantum tunnelling in the short space between p and n regions âˆ’ this is known as the Zener effect, after Clarence Zener. Diodes with a higher Zener voltage have a more gradual junction and their mode of operation also involves avalanche breakdown. Both breakdown types are present in Zener diodes with the Zener effect predominating at lower voltages and avalanche breakdown at higher voltages. Zener diodes are widely used in electronic equipment of all kinds and are one of the basic building blocks of electronic circuits. They are used to generate low-power stabilized supply rails from a higher voltage and to provide reference voltages for circuits, especially stabilized power supplies. They are also used to protect circuits from overvoltage, especially electrostatic discharge (ESD).

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How to connect the 4N35?

There are lots of ways to do this. The simplest method is to put a diode and resistor in series with the input diode of the 4N35. The resistor should be selected to limit the peak current through the 4N35 diode to around 1/2 of the continuous rating. On the output side use a pull up resistor and a filter cap. The RC time constant must be long enough to keep the collect voltage low between the AC cycles

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Gunn diode oscillators

The negative differential resistance, combined with the timing properties of the intermediate layer, is responsible for the diode's largest use: in electronic oscillators at microwave frequencies and above. A microwave oscillator can be created simply by applying a DC voltage to bias the device into its negative resistance region. In effect, the negative differential resistance of the diode cancels the positive resistance of the load circuit, thus creating a circuit with zero differential resistance, which will produce spontaneous oscillations. The oscillation frequency is determined partly by the properties of the middle diode layer, but can be tuned by external factors. In practical oscillators, an electronic resonator is usually added to control frequency, in the form of a waveguide, microwave cavity or YIG sphere. The diode is usually mounted inside the cavity. The diode cancels the loss resistance of the resonator, so it produces oscillations at its resonant frequency. The frequency can be tuned mechanically, by adjusting the size of the cavity, or in case of YIG spheres by changing the magnetic field. Gunn diodes are used to build oscillators in the 10 GHz to high (THz) frequency range. Gallium arsenide Gunn diodes are made for frequencies up to 200 GHz, gallium nitride materials can reach up to 3 terahertz.

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