Discussion on 5g Core Network Deployment Objectives of Three Operators Based on SBA Architecture

At present, the fourth industrial revolution characterized by digitization, networking and intelligence is booming. 5g, as a key new infrastructure supporting the digital transformation of economy and society, will promote the outbreak of large-scale innovative applications and accelerate the arrival of the digital age.

As the combination point of network and business, 5g core network should support three application scenarios: embB, urllc and mmtc. Compared with 4G, 5g core network is facing greater changes, and its quality even determines whether 5g services can be carried out efficiently. Therefore, based on cloud technology, business oriented and SBA based 5gc core network, deploying 5g target network architecture has become the strategic goal of global mainstream operators.

However, in the process of cloud construction and evolution of 5g core network, global operators have made completely different path choices. Some operators choose the exclusive construction mode, that is, end-to-end delivery by one equipment manufacturer; However, more large operators choose multiple manufacturers to participate. Operators formulate corresponding standards and technical specifications, and multiple manufacturers participate in competition to finally complete the delivery.

Of course, when choosing the path, operators will fully consider the advantages and disadvantages of different paths and find the most suitable path for themselves. However, in the author's opinion, operators with strength and pursuit should still take advantage of the east wind of 5g, focus on the big and small, build a truly independent, open and intelligent 5g core network, and firmly grasp their destiny in their own hands.

5g C highlights the importance

Since last year, 5g has undoubtedly become a hot word of the year. This year, under the overweight of national policies, the domestic 5g construction is accelerating, and the three operators have put forward the goal of completing the construction of 550000 5g base stations by 2020.

With the gradual implementation of 5g commercial, it has had a great impact on all aspects of people's use of mobile technology. Low latency, high speed and high reliability demand for network is increasing. From mobile phone to autopilot, to HD video and industrial Internet, 5G network has opened up many new application scenarios. At the initial stage of 5g application, the network only needs to meet the needs of embB scenario, but with the continuous improvement of technology, the network also needs to support the needs of two scenarios: mmtc and urllc.

In order to meet various business scenarios of 5g, operators need to build a basic network based on 5g services and cloud, so that they can quickly and quickly release new services and shorten the time to market. As the core network of the network control center, it is becoming more and more important in the 5g era. Building a new 5g core network has also become the key to reshaping the competitiveness of operators.

In fact, the core network has been evolving and upgrading from 2G to 5g. In the 4G era, the emergence of EPC has provided users with better services and can quickly transmit voice, image and video information. However, applications in the 5g era have more stringent network and service delivery requirements, and the shortcomings of EPC are beginning to appear. The integrated network element structure leads to complex business changes, complex implementation of reliability schemes, and interweaving of control plane and user plane messages, resulting in great difficulty in deployment, operation and maintenance. Whether expanding vertical industries or increasing business revenue, the networking mode based on traditional chimney can not meet the needs of 5g era.

It's time to make a change. In order to facilitate rapid deployment and save cost, 5g core network sinks some functions to man. 3GPP determines to adopt the 5g core network SBA architecture, cloud deployment and centralized control plane deployment, and finally realize distributed and flexible deployment. Flexible and automated 5g core network has become the basis of agile and programmable network, and it is also the goal of network innovation of global operators.

Path speculation: exclusive or platform

The core network architecture of the next generation 5g network has basically reached a consensus, but in the process of cloud construction and evolution of 5g core network, global operators have made completely different path choices.

Last year, at the "5g core network summit" held in Madrid, Valery barai, head of velcom core network, a Belarus subsidiary of Austrian Telecom, said that the company would not adopt a multi vendor strategy when planning its own 5g core network. Operators who adopt a single equipment manufacturer believe that it will be an extremely difficult task to integrate 5g core networks of multiple manufacturers. At the same time, it may lead to higher operational complexity, especially in the case of microservice architecture.

At the same meeting, Enrique Blanco, chief technology officer of Spain Telecom, had different views. He said that Spain Telecom had ruled out using only one supplier in its planned 5g core network. He believes that the multi supplier strategy can help Spain Telecom launch a more flexible network and avoid over reliance on a supplier.

At the same time, Enrique Blanco also urged suppliers to support open source and cloud native technologies. He believes that Spain Telecom will need these technologies to achieve its 5g core network goal. As part of the overall transformation of the network, his goal is to completely separate the user plane responsible for transmitting traffic in the network from the control plane responsible for transmitting signals.

Exclusive or platform? This is a common choice faced by other operators in the world when making their own plans. The cloud construction of 5g core network is a very complex problem, and the considerations of operators are multi-dimensional, so as to find the most suitable one. But if you don't make the right decision in time, you will put yourself in a very bad situation.

For domestic operators, a broad consensus has been reached on this choice. Recently, China Mobile and China Telecom have carried out centralized purchase of 5g core network equipment. Huawei, ZTE, Ericsson and Nokia are among the core network procurement results recently released by China Mobile. The centralized purchase of main equipment for the 2020 5g core network construction project launched by China Telecom also adopts the multi manufacturer strategy.

It can be seen that the industry may never have a unified answer to this question. In my opinion, those operators with strength and pursuit will certainly not choose to be controlled by others, but firmly grasp their destiny in their own hands.

Be your own master

In the 3G / 4G era, the development of Ott applications has destroyed the fence garden built by operators and weakened operators' control over the industrial chain. At the same time, the meticulous "nanny" service of equipment manufacturers has set up many obstacles to the network of operators, and the voice of operators has been further lost. The fundamental to solve these problems is to master the core technology.

Return to the origin, the network is the inherent endowment of telecom operators, which contains valuable development opportunities. Therefore, operators should strive to become the driver, practitioner and leader of network technology, promote network reconstruction through independent R & D, joint R & D and collaborative innovation, and enhance the value and competitiveness of the network.

On the one hand, based on the in-depth understanding of the network, business and customers, operators integrate the manufacturers' understanding of technology and equipment, and lead the future development of the industry by controlling the core network technology and outputting demand and standards; On the other hand, operators can give full play to their network capabilities, effectively coordinate and match with the business, actively lead and actively cooperate with the new connection needs of vertical industries for networks and platforms, promote the integration of the Internet with other industries, and truly shoulder the burden of network innovation and development.

The change of 5g core network gives operators an opportunity to return to the center of the stage. As a leader in the industry, China Mobile has set a good example to the industry. On January 3 this year, China Mobile launched openupf, an industry-oriented 5g UPF and N4 interface open partner program. A reliable, manageable, trusted, concise, flexible and open UPF is defined from four aspects: open interface, open device, open service and open intelligence.

As the key equipment of the core network, the deployment and maintenance cost of system level UPF is relatively high. The non standardization of N4 interface leads to the binding of UPF and SMF with the same manufacturer, which can not meet the lightweight, low-cost and flexible deployment requirements of UPF on the edge user side. It is reported that openupf partners plan to build a complete technical system to promote industrial maturity, enhance network capacity and help 5g serve vertical industry users. In this regard, the industry responded positively, and 25 industry partners such as Huawei, ZTE, Ericsson, Nokia and Intel participated in the plan.

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